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  • 20 Jun 2024

Introduction to Email Authentication and DMARC

In the digital age, email remains one of the most effective and widely used communication channels for businesses. However, with its popularity comes the risk of misuse, such as phishing attacks and email spoofing. These malicious activities can damage your brand’s reputation, erode customer trust, and even lead to significant financial losses. This is where DMARC (Domain-based Message Authentication, Reporting & Conformance) comes into play. DMARC is a powerful email authentication protocol that helps protect your domain from being used in email spoofing and phishing attacks.

Understanding DMARC

DMARC is an email authentication, policy, and reporting protocol designed to give email domain owners the ability to protect their domain from unauthorized use, commonly known as email spoofing. DMARC builds on two existing email authentication mechanisms: SPF (Sender Policy Framework) and DKIM (DomainKeys Identified Mail). By aligning SPF and DKIM mechanisms, DMARC provides a way for email senders and receivers to coordinate to improve and monitor the protection of the domain from email spoofing.

How DMARC Works

  1. Alignment of SPF and DKIM: DMARC requires that either SPF or DKIM (or both) align. Alignment means that the domain in the From header matches the domain in the SPF or DKIM signature.
  2. Policy Definition: DMARC allows domain owners to specify how their emails should be handled if they fail SPF or DKIM checks. The policies can be:
    • none: No action is taken; reports are sent to the domain owner.
    • quarantine: Emails failing the checks are sent to the spam/junk folder.
    • reject: Emails failing the checks are rejected outright.
  3. Reporting: DMARC provides a reporting mechanism for domain owners to receive feedback about email messages that pass and fail authentication checks. Reports are sent to an email address specified in the DMARC record.

The Components of a DMARC Record

A DMARC record is a DNS TXT record that contains policy information. Here is an example of a DMARC record:

cssCopy code_dmarc.example.com. IN TXT "v=DMARC1; p=reject; rua=mailto:dmarc-reports@example.com; ruf=mailto:dmarc-forensic@example.com; sp=none; adkim=r; aspf=s"
  • v=DMARC1: Indicates the version of DMARC.
  • p=reject: Policy for emails that fail SPF/DKIM checks.
  • rua=mailto:dmarc-reports@example.com: Address to send aggregate reports.
  • ruf=mailto:dmarc-forensic@example.com: Address to send forensic reports.
  • sp=none: Policy for subdomains.
  • adkim=r: Alignment mode for DKIM (r for relaxed, s for strict).
  • aspf=s: Alignment mode for SPF (r for relaxed, s for strict).

Why Your Business Needs DMARC

1. Protecting Your Brand and Customers

One of the most significant benefits of implementing DMARC is brand protection. Cybercriminals often use email spoofing to impersonate trusted brands, tricking recipients into divulging sensitive information or downloading malware. By enforcing DMARC policies, you can prevent unauthorized use of your domain, protecting your customers from phishing attacks and maintaining their trust in your brand.

2. Enhancing Email Deliverability

DMARC helps improve your email deliverability rates. When ISPs (Internet Service Providers) see that your domain is protected by DMARC, they are more likely to trust emails coming from your domain. This increased trust can lead to higher email deliverability rates, ensuring that your legitimate emails reach your customers’ inboxes instead of being marked as spam.

3. Gaining Visibility and Control

DMARC provides valuable insights through its reporting feature. By receiving aggregate and forensic reports, you can gain visibility into how your domain is being used. These reports help you understand the sources of legitimate and fraudulent emails, allowing you to take appropriate actions to secure your email channel further.

4. Meeting Regulatory Requirements

Many industries have stringent regulatory requirements regarding data protection and cybersecurity. Implementing DMARC helps you comply with these regulations by adding an extra layer of security to your email communications. For instance, financial institutions, healthcare providers, and other sectors handling sensitive information can benefit from DMARC to meet industry standards and regulatory requirements.

5. Reducing Business Risks

Phishing and email spoofing can lead to significant financial losses, data breaches, and reputational damage. By implementing DMARC, you reduce the risk of these cyber threats, safeguarding your business operations and protecting your stakeholders. The cost of setting up and maintaining DMARC is minimal compared to the potential losses from a successful phishing attack.

How to Implement DMARC for Your Business

  1. Assess Your Current Email Authentication: Before implementing DMARC, ensure that SPF and DKIM are correctly configured for your domain.
  2. Create a DMARC Record: Use your DNS provider’s management console to create a DMARC record. Start with a none policy to monitor your email traffic without affecting email delivery.
  3. Analyze DMARC Reports: Monitor the reports you receive to understand how your domain is being used and identify any issues.
  4. Adjust Your Policy: Based on the insights from the reports, gradually move from none to quarantine and then to reject policies to enforce stricter email security.
  5. Monitor and Maintain: Continuously monitor your DMARC reports and adjust your policies as needed. Ensure that your SPF and DKIM records are up-to-date.


DMARC is an essential tool for any business looking to protect its email domain from abuse and enhance its email deliverability. By implementing DMARC, you not only safeguard your brand and customers but also gain valuable insights into your email traffic and reduce business risks. The process of setting up DMARC is straightforward, and the benefits it provides far outweigh the effort involved. Make DMARC a part of your email security strategy today to secure your domain and build trust with your customers.

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